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CONTENTS
LESSON-1-2
LESSON-3
LESSON-4.1
LESSON-4.2
LESSON-5.1
LESSON-5.2
LESSON-6.1
LESSON-6.2
LESSON-7.1
LESSON-7.2
LESSON-7.3
LESSON-8
LESSON-9
LESSON-10.1
LESSON-10.2
LESSON-11
LESSON-12
LESSON-13.1
LESSON-13.2
LESSON-14
LESSON-15.1
LESSON-15.2
Contraception
The Sex Life of the Gods. Michael Knerr. CHAPTER-1
CHAPTER-2-3
CHAPTER-4
CHAPTER-5-6
CHAPTER-7-8
CHAPTER-9-10
CHAPTER-11-12
CHAPTER-13-14
CHAPTER-15-16
CHAPTER-17-18-19

any child, and, if possible, even less in artificially influencing the 

determination of its sex. When the general principles arrived at are 

borne in mind, it must be confessed that the prospects of our ever 

attaining this power of control or even of prediction are not very 

hopeful, but the possibility of it cannot be yet regarded as entirely 

excluded. The general conclusions arrived at are that sex is determined 

by a physiological condition of the embryonic cells, that this condition 

is induced, at least in the absence of disturbing causes, by the 

presence of a particular sex-chromosome. [A "chromosome" is a portion of 

the chromatin, or substance characteristic of the nucleus of the cell, 

this nucleus seemingly controlling the life-processes of the cell.] But 

there is evidence, which for the present at least cannot be neglected, 

that certain extraneous conditions acting on the egg or early embryo may 

perhaps be able to counteract the effect of sex chromosome. 

 

"Quite generally, then, there are two conceivable methods by which the 

sex might be artificially influenced in any particular case; firstly, if 

means could be found of ensuring that any particular fertilized ovum 

received the required chromosomes; and, secondly, by the discovery of 

methods which always effect the ovum or embryo in such a way as to 

produce the desired sex. Many suggestions for applying both methods have 

been made, some of which have attained considerable notoriety, but 

hitherto none of them has stood the test of practical experience. In the 

case of the higher animals, especially of the mammals, in which the 

embryo develops in the maternal uterus until long after the sex is 

irrevocably decided, it is obviously difficult to apply methods which 

might influence the sex after fertilization, even if it were certainly 

known that such methods were ever really effective. 

 

"Apart from the few experiments like those of Hertwig on rearing 

tadpoles at different temperatures, there have been a very few cases in 

which there is even a suggestion that the sex of the fertilized egg can 

be modified by environment, and the belief that this is possible has 

been entirely abandoned by many of the leading investigators of the 

subject. It is probable, therefore, that if it will ever be possible to 

predict or determine artificially the sex of a particular child, the 

means will have to be sought in some method of influencing the output of 

germ-cells in such a way that one kind is produced rather than the 

other. It is in this way that Heape and others interpret the results of 


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