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of the death-rate is concerned, and the only persons with whom a
practical quarrel remains are those who applaud the mother who boasts
that she has buried twelve."
The Eugenists urge that if the principles applied to plant-life by that
master of his science, Luther Burbank, were applied to the production
and rearing of young human life, in a few generations we should have a
race so far advanced beyond the present average as to be almost god-like
by comparison. But this means a far different thing from the ideal of
merely "more children"--it requires the manifestation of the ideal of
"better children," well born, carefully reared, well nourished, and
scientifically educated. And this rearing, nourishing, and education
must not be confined to the physical part of the child's nature--it must
proceed along the three-fold line of physical, mental, and moral
The Eugenists have been actively concerned with the question of the
prevention of the transmission of undesirable qualities to offspring.
They have held that while crime is more frequently rather the result of
evil environment than of criminal heredity, nevertheless there is a
large class of children who are "born criminals"--that is, born with
such a decided tendency toward criminal acts that the slightest
influence of environment may, and often does, serve to kindle into a
blaze the undesirable and criminal characteristics.
Dr. Saleeby says of this: "In the face of the work of Lombroso and his
school, exaggerated though some of their conclusions may be, we cannot
dispute the existence of born criminals and the criminal type. There are
undoubtedly many such persons in modern society. There is an abundance
of crime which no education, practiced or imaginable, would eliminate.
Present day psychology and medicine and, for the matter of that,
ordinary common-sense, can readily distinguish cases at both
extremes--the mattoid or semi-insane criminal at one end, and the decent
citizen who yields to exceptional temptation at the other end."
The Eugenists quote as an instance of the above contention the
celebrated case of Max Jukes, a notorious criminal and drunkard, who as
the records show us was the ancestor of a foul brood of descendants
which cost the State of New York over a million dollars in seventy-five
years. Among these descendants were 200 thieves and murderers; 285
subject to idiocy, blindness or deafness; 90 prostitutes; and 300
children born prematurely. It is possible that a portion of this evil
result was caused not alone by bad heredity but, at least in part, by
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